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Comoros

Map of Comoros

Welcome to the NaTHNaC Country Information page.

The information on this page should be used as part of a comprehensive pre-travel health consultation. Ideally this should be scheduled at least six weeks prior to travel. All travellers should have adequate travel health insurance.

Contents

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Recent Clinical Updates

Clinical Updates provide information which may result in a change in travel health advice or practice.

Recent Clinical Updates for this country are listed below:

There have been no Clinical Updates about this country in the last 6 months.

View a full list of Clinical Updates for this country.


General Health Risks


Vaccine Preventable Risks

Travellers should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations according to the UK schedule:

Yellow Fever

Vaccine Preventable Risks: Yellow Fever | Additional Risks | Back to Top

YELLOW FEVER

There is no risk of yellow fever in this country and there are no certificate requirements under International Health Regulations (2005).

Additional Risks

Vaccine Preventable Risks: Yellow Fever | Additional Risks | Back to Top

The diseases below may be a risk in all or part of the country and are presented alphabetically:

Hepatitis A, link_hepb_newrisk.htmHepatitis B, link_rabies_risk.htmRabies, Tetanus, Typhoid

HEPATITIS A

Hepatitis A is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver. A map showing the global areas at risk for hepatitis A can be found here (102 KB GIF)

Risk assessment
Risk management
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis A

Department of Health: Immunisation against infectious disease (Green Book) - Hepatitis A

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food and Water-Borne Diseases

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis A

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food and Water-Borne Diseases

disease_hepb_newrisk.htm

HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver and may lead to chronic complications.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid contact with blood or bodily fluids. Where contact is unavoidable, appropriate protective precautions should be taken.
  • A sterile medical kit should be carried.
  • Vaccination should be considered for all adult and child travellers.
  • Vaccination is recommended for travellers at higher risk of exposure including those who:

 - may have unprotected sex

 - may be directly exposed to blood or blood products through their occupation, such as healthcare professionals are participating in contact sports

 - may be exposed to contaminated needles through injecting drug use, or as a result of accessing medical or dental care e.g. those with pre-existing medical conditions and those travelling for medical care

 - intend to undergo renal dialysis whilst overseas

 - are adopting children from the country

 - long stay travellers.

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis B

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis B

disease_rabies_risk1.htm

RABIES

Rabies is a neurological disease caused by viruses of the Lyssavirus genus.

Risk assessment
  • EpidemiologyInformation on the occurrence of disease within this country - in this country rabies has been reported in domestic and wild animals. Bats may carry rabies-like viruses in this country.
  • ExposureInformation on the mode of transmission and factors that may increase disease risk - transmission may occur following contact with the saliva from an infected animal, most often via a bite, scratch or lick to an open wound or mucous membrane. Rabies transmission may occur following contact with the saliva of an infected bat (via bites or scratches or saliva contact with mucous membranes). Bites from bats are frequently unrecognised.

    The risk of exposure is increased by the type of activity (e.g. running, cycling), occupation (e.g. veterinarians) and for those staying in this country for long periods.

    Children are at increased risk as they are less likely to avoid contact with animals and to report a bite, scratch or lick.

Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid contact with all animals and bats.
  • Pre-exposure vaccination should be considered for adults and children who are at increased risk (see above).
  • Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial. Prompt post exposure treatment may be required.
  • Post-exposure management and advice on return to the UK should be in accordance with PHE guidelines.

 

Suitable vaccine and immunoglobulins may be in short supply or unavailable in some countries.

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Rabies

Department of Health. Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Public Health England: Rabies

World Animal Health Information Database (OIE)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Rabies

TETANUS

Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule.
  • A booster dose should be givenAll travellers in risk categories should receive vaccine to travellers whose last dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine was given more than 10 years ago, and who will not have ready access to medical care; even if they have received five doses previously.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tetanus

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tetanus

TYPHOID

Typhoid fever is a systemic disease caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions even if vaccinated.
  • Most travellers are at low risk and do not need vaccination.
  • Vaccine may be givenMost travellers at low risk, consider vaccine for those in risk categories to travellers whose planned activities put them at higher risk (see above). Current vaccines against Salmonella Typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella Paratyphi. Previous typhoid illness does not confer reliable immunity.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food- and Water-Borne Diseases

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food- and Water-Borne Diseases


Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks

This section details infectious disease risks for which there are no vaccines as well as some non-infectious disease risks. This is not an exhaustive list. Further information about infectious and non-infectious disease risks can be found on the NaTHNaC Health Information Sheets. Travellers should be aware that accidents and injuries are a cause of serious illness during travel.

Malaria

Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks: Malaria | Additional Risks | Back to Top

MALARIA

Malaria is a serious febrile illness caused by infection of red blood cells with Plasmodium sp. parasites: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. View a map of the global distribution of malaria as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO) here. Malaria prevention advice for this country follows Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) guidelines.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Awareness of risk - Risk depends on the specific location, season of travel, length of stay, activities and type of accommodation. Those at higher risk of malaria, or of severe complications from malaria, include pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and those visiting friends and relatives.
  • Bite prevention - Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures. Anopheles mosquitoes feed predominantly during the hours from dusk to dawn.
  • Chemoprophylaxis - No malaria prevention tablets are 100% effective. Taking malaria prevention tablets in combination with mosquito bite avoidance measures will give substantial protection against malaria.
    • Chloroquine resistance is widespread. The recommended chemoprophylaxis is mefloquine, doxycycline or atovaquone/proguanil.
  • Diagnosis - Travellers who develop a fever of 38°C [100°F] or higher more than one week after being in a malaria risk area, or who develop any symptoms suggestive of malaria within a year of return should seek immediate medical care.

Health professionals may obtain advice on managing returned travellers with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of malaria by consulting published guidelines:

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information sheet on malaria

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) Guidelines for Malaria Prevention in Travellers from the United Kingdom

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information sheet on malaria

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) Guidelines for Malaria Prevention in Travellers from the United Kingdom

Additional Risks

Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks: Malaria | Additional Risks | Back to Top

The risks below may be a risk in all or part of the country and are presented alphabetically:

Dengue fever

DENGUE FEVER

Dengue is a systemic viral disease. A map showing the global areas at risk for dengue can be found here (85 KB GIF)

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours.
  • There is no vaccination or medication to prevent dengue.
  • A previous dengue illness with one of the four dengue virus serotypes does not confer immunity to other virus serotypes.
  • Infection with a second dengue serotype may be a risk factor for the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Dengue Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

NaTHNaC Outbreak Survellience Database

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Dengue Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance


Disclaimer

The travel health information contained in these pages is intended for health professionals who assess a patients travel health needs. This document is not a complete medical guide for travellers and as such travellers using this site should consult with a health professional for specific information related to your travel and medical history. While every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy and timeliness of the travel health information, NaTHNaC cannot accept any liability for injury, loss or damage arising in any respect of any statement contained therein.

For the purpose of these web pages the term "country" covers countries, territories and areas. Areas within a country may be shown separately where it is felt necessary in order to provide travel health information.