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Nigeria

Map of Nigeria

Welcome to the NaTHNaC Country Information page.

The information on this page should be used as part of a comprehensive pre-travel health consultation. Ideally this should be scheduled at least six weeks prior to travel. All travellers should have adequate travel health insurance.

Contents

On this page:

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Recent Clinical Updates


General Health Risks


Vaccine Preventable Risks

Travellers should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations according to the UK schedule:

Yellow Fever

Vaccine Preventable Risks: Yellow Fever | Additional Risks | Back to Top

Administration of yellow fever vaccine should take into account both the certificate requirements under International Health Regulations and the risk of yellow fever at the destination. The lack of a certificate requirement does not necessarily indicate that there is no risk of disease.

disease_yf_riskinf1_af.htm

YELLOW FEVER

Yellow fever is a systemic viral disease.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours.
  • Yellow fever vaccine should be givenAll travellers in risk categories should receive vaccine to travellers 9 months of age and older.
  • There are specific contraindications and adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine. A careful risk assessment should be made before administration and specialist advice sought as appropriate.
Certificate requirements
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Yellow Fever

NaTHNaC Yellow Fever Vaccine: Information for Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

World Health Organization (WHO) Yellow Fever Vaccination Recommendations and Requirements

Travellers

NaTHNaC Yellow Fever Vaccine: Information for Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Additional Risks

Vaccine Preventable Risks: Yellow Fever | Additional Risks | Back to Top

The diseases below may be a risk in all or part of the country and are presented alphabetically:

Cholera, Diphtheria, Hepatitis A, link_hepb_newrisk.htmHepatitis B, Meningococcal meningitis, link_polio_2014_int.htmPolio, link_rabies_risk.htmRabies, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Typhoid

CHOLERA

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Cholera

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food- and Water-Borne Diseases

Department of Health: Immunisation against infectious disease (Green Book) - Cholera

NaTHNaC Outbreak Surveillance Database

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Cholera

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Food and Water Hygiene

DIPHTHERIA

Pharyngeal or cutaneous diphtheria is caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria and occasionally by C. ulcerans.

Risk assessment
Risk management
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Diphtheria

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Diphtheria

HEPATITIS A

Hepatitis A is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver. A map showing the global areas at risk for hepatitis A can be found here (102 KB GIF)

Risk assessment
Risk management
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis A

Department of Health: Immunisation against infectious disease (Green Book) - Hepatitis A

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food and Water-Borne Diseases

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis A

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food and Water-Borne Diseases

disease_hepb_newrisk.htm

HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver and may lead to chronic complications.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid contact with blood or bodily fluids. Where contact is unavoidable, appropriate protective precautions should be taken.
  • A sterile medical kit should be carried.
  • Vaccination should be considered for all adult and child travellers.
  • Vaccination is recommended for travellers at higher risk of exposure including those who:

 - may have unprotected sex

 - may be directly exposed to blood or blood products through their occupation, such as healthcare professionals are participating in contact sports

 - may be exposed to contaminated needles through injecting drug use, or as a result of accessing medical or dental care e.g. those with pre-existing medical conditions and those travelling for medical care

 - intend to undergo renal dialysis whilst overseas

 - are adopting children from the country

 - long stay travellers.

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis B

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Hepatitis B

MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS

Meningococcal meningitis is caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid, if possible, overcrowded conditions.
  • The quadrivalent vaccine (A, C, W, Y) should be givenAll travellers in risk categories should receive vaccine to travellers whose planned activities put them at risk (see above).
  • A conjugate vaccine is recommended in preference to a polysaccharide vaccine, particularly in children from one to under five years of age, where indicated.
  • Previous vaccination with the meningitis C conjugate vaccine (MenC) does not protect against the other meningococcal capsular groups.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Meningococcal Meningitis

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Meningococcal Meningitis

disease_polio_2014_int.htm

POLIO

Polio is a viral disease involving the gastrointestinal tract and occasionally the central nervous system, leading to paralytic poliomyelitis.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions.
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule. Previous poliomyelitis does not confer immunity against another episode of poliomyelitis.
  • Interim advice (May 2014 and until further notice). Further information is available from NaTHNaC Clinical Update, as of 27 May 2014.
    Shorter term travellers (4 weeks to six months) should ensure that they are up to date with polio immunisation, including a booster if none has been received for ten years.
  • Travellers to settings with extremely poor hygiene (e.g. refugee camps), or likely to be in close proximity with cases (e.g. healthcare workers), and/or visiting for 6 months or more, are advised to have a booster dose of polio-containing vaccine if they had not received vaccination in the past 12 months.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Poliomyelitis

Department of Health Immunisation agaianst infectious disease (Green Book) - Poliomyelitis

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

National Polio Surveillance Project of India website

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Poliomyelitis

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food and Water-Borne Diseases

disease_rabies_risk1.htm

RABIES

Rabies is a neurological disease caused by viruses of the Lyssavirus genus.

Risk assessment
  • EpidemiologyInformation on the occurrence of disease within this country - in this country rabies has been reported in domestic and wild animals. Bats may carry rabies-like viruses in this country.
  • ExposureInformation on the mode of transmission and factors that may increase disease risk - transmission may occur following contact with the saliva from an infected animal, most often via a bite, scratch or lick to an open wound or mucous membrane. Rabies transmission may occur following contact with the saliva of an infected bat (via bites or scratches or saliva contact with mucous membranes). Bites from bats are frequently unrecognised.

    The risk of exposure is increased by the type of activity (e.g. running, cycling), occupation (e.g. veterinarians) and for those staying in this country for long periods.

    Children are at increased risk as they are less likely to avoid contact with animals and to report a bite, scratch or lick.

Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid contact with all animals and bats.
  • Pre-exposure vaccination should be considered for adults and children who are at increased risk (see above).
  • Following a possible exposure, wounds should be thoroughly cleansed and an urgent local medical assessment sought, even if the wound appears trivial. Prompt post exposure treatment may be required.
  • Post-exposure management and advice on return to the UK should be in accordance with PHE guidelines.

 

Suitable vaccine and immunoglobulins may be in short supply or unavailable in some countries.

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Rabies

Department of Health. Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Public Health England: Rabies

World Animal Health Information Database (OIE)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Rabies

TETANUS

Tetanus is caused by a toxin released from Clostridium tetani bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention
  • Travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course according to the UK schedule.
  • A booster dose should be givenAll travellers in risk categories should receive vaccine to travellers whose last dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine was given more than 10 years ago, and who will not have ready access to medical care; even if they have received five doses previously.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tetanus

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tetanus

TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A map showing the global areas at risk for tuberculosis can be found here (will open in new window).

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • The pre-travel visit is an opportunity to ensure that individuals in defined risk categories are vaccinated with BCG according to current UK guidance.  For further details see the Department of Health Immunisation against infectious disease (The Green Book).
  • Travellers should avoid close contact with individuals known to have infectious pulmonary TB.
  • BCG vaccine should be considered for unvaccinated, tuberculin skin test negative children from 6 to under 16 years of age, who are going to live for more than 3 months in this country.
  • BCG vaccine should be considered for unvaccinated children younger than 6 years of age, who are going to live for more than 3 months in this country. These children will usually not need a tuberculin skin test prior to vaccination.
  • Healthcare workers should take appropriate infection control precautions.  BCG vaccine should be considered for previously unvaccinated, tuberculin skin test negative health care workers younger than 35 years of age. This recommendation is irrespective of duration of stay.
  • There are specific contraindications and adverse events associated with BCG vaccine. A careful risk assessment should be made before administration and specialist advice sought as appropriate.
  • Travellers who are in the risk groups described and who do not receive BCG vaccine should be considered for pre-travel and post-travel testing for exposure to tuberculosis.
  • Travellers who suspect that they may have been exposed to tuberculosis should receive an appropriate medical evaluation.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tuberculosis

Department of Health: Immunisation against infectious disease (Green Book) - Tuberculosis

National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE): tuberculosis guidelines

World Health Organization TB report 2013

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Tuberculosis

National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE): tuberculosis guidelines information for the public

TYPHOID

Typhoid fever is a systemic disease caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should practice strict food, water and personal hygiene precautions even if vaccinated.
  • Vaccine should be givenAll travellers in risk categories should receive vaccine to travellers whose planned activities put them at higher risk (see above). Current vaccines against Salmonella Typhi are only 50-80% protective and do not protect against Salmonella Paratyphi. Previous typhoid illness does not confer reliable immunity.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food- and Water-Borne Diseases

Department of Health Immunisation Against Infectious Disease (Green Book)

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Prevention of Food- and Water-Borne Diseases


Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks

This section details infectious disease risks for which there are no vaccines as well as some non-infectious disease risks. This is not an exhaustive list. Further information about infectious and non-infectious disease risks can be found on the NaTHNaC Health Information Sheets. Travellers should be aware that accidents and injuries are a cause of serious illness during travel.

Malaria

Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks: Malaria | Additional Risks | Back to Top

MALARIA

Malaria is a serious febrile illness caused by infection of red blood cells with Plasmodium sp. parasites: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. View a map of the global distribution of malaria as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO) here. Malaria prevention advice for this country follows Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) guidelines.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Awareness of risk - Risk depends on the specific location, season of travel, length of stay, activities and type of accommodation. Those at higher risk of malaria, or of severe complications from malaria, include pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and those visiting friends and relatives.
  • Bite prevention - Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures. Anopheles mosquitoes feed predominantly during the hours from dusk to dawn.
  • Chemoprophylaxis - No malaria prevention tablets are 100% effective. Taking malaria prevention tablets in combination with mosquito bite avoidance measures will give substantial protection against malaria.
    • Chloroquine resistance is widespread. The recommended chemoprophylaxis is mefloquine, doxycycline or atovaquone/proguanil.
  • Diagnosis - Travellers who develop a fever of 38°C [100°F] or higher more than one week after being in a malaria risk area, or who develop any symptoms suggestive of malaria within a year of return should seek immediate medical care.

Health professionals may obtain advice on managing returned travellers with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of malaria by consulting published guidelines:

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information sheet on malaria

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) Guidelines for Malaria Prevention in Travellers from the United Kingdom

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information sheet on malaria

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

Public Health England, Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) Guidelines for Malaria Prevention in Travellers from the United Kingdom

Additional Risks

Non-Vaccine Preventable Risks: Malaria | Additional Risks | Back to Top

The risks below may be a risk in all or part of the country and are presented alphabetically:

Dengue fever, link_schisto_risk1.htmSchistosomiasis

DENGUE FEVER

Dengue is a systemic viral disease. A map showing the global areas at risk for dengue can be found here (85 KB GIF)

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should take mosquito bite avoidance measures. Aedes mosquitoes feed predominantly during daylight hours.
  • There is no vaccination or medication to prevent dengue.
  • A previous dengue illness with one of the four dengue virus serotypes does not confer immunity to other virus serotypes.
  • Infection with a second dengue serotype may be a risk factor for the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever.
Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Dengue Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

NaTHNaC Outbreak Survellience Database

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Dengue Fever

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Insect Bite Avoidance

disease_schisto_risk1.htm

SCHISTOSOMIASIS

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic flatworm infection of the intestinal or urinary system caused by one of several species of Schistosoma.

Risk assessment
Risk management
  • Travellers should avoid wading, swimming, or bathing in fresh water.

  • Swimming in chlorinated water or sea water is not a risk for schistosomiasis.

  • Topical application of insect repellent before exposure to water, or towel drying after accidental exposure to schistosomiasis are not reliable in preventing infection.

  • There is no vaccine or tablets to prevent schistosomiasis.

  • Travellers who may have been exposed to schistosomiasis should have a medical assessment.

Resources
Health Professionals

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Schistosomiasis

Travellers

NaTHNaC Health Information Sheet on Schistosomiasis


Disclaimer

The travel health information contained in these pages is intended for health professionals who assess a patients travel health needs. This document is not a complete medical guide for travellers and as such travellers using this site should consult with a health professional for specific information related to your travel and medical history. While every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy and timeliness of the travel health information, NaTHNaC cannot accept any liability for injury, loss or damage arising in any respect of any statement contained therein.

For the purpose of these web pages the term "country" covers countries, territories and areas. Areas within a country may be shown separately where it is felt necessary in order to provide travel health information.